Botany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist or plant scientist is a scientist who specialises in this field. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist or plant scientist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term 'botany' comes from.
Nowadays, botanists study approximately 4. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify .
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Medieval physic gardens, often attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance. They were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1. One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, and led in 1. Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day.
In the 1. 9th and 2. In the last two decades of the 2. DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure, growth and differentiation, reproduction, biochemistry and primary metabolism, chemical products, development, diseases, evolutionary relationships, systematics, and plant taxonomy.
Posts about Northern California native plants written by Ellen O'Shea. Are you interested in computer vision and image processing, but don't know where to start? My new book is your guaranteed quick start guide to learning the fundamentals of. Through NSTA, you’ll find leading resources for excellence in teaching and learning and experience growth through robust professional development. Plus you’ll meet colleagues across all science disciplines, all grade bands. A Textbook of Botany is intended to introduce the student to the present state of our knowledge of botanical science. Topics covered includes: General Botany, Internal Morphology, Physiology, Special Botany and Cryptogams.
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Dominant themes in 2. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, oil, rubber, fibre and drugs, in modern horticulture, agriculture and forestry, plant propagation, breeding and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, and the maintenance of biodiversity. History. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 1. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1. BC, in archaic Avestan writings, and in works from China before it was unified in 2.
BC. Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece specifically to Theophrastus (c. His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages, almost seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five- volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was widely read for more than 1,5. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Ab. In the early 1. 3th century, Abu al- Abbas al- Nabati, and Ibn al- Baitar (d.
In the mid- 1. 6th century, . These gardens continued the practical value of earlier . They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject.
Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much later to northern Europe; the first in England was the University of Oxford Botanic Garden in 1. Throughout this period, botany remained firmly subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs (1.
Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus (1.
Naturalist Conrad von Gesner (1. Naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1. In 1. 66. 5, using an early microscope, Polymath. Robert Hooke discovered cells, a term he coined, in cork, and a short time later in living plant tissue. Early modern botany.
The choice and sequence of the characters may be artificial in keys designed purely for identification (diagnostic keys) or more closely related to the natural or phyletic order of the taxa in synoptic keys. By the 1. 8th century, new plants for study were arriving in Europe in increasing numbers from newly discovered countries and the European colonies worldwide. In 1. 75. 3 Carl von Linn. This established a standardised binomial or two- part naming scheme where the first name represented the genus and the second identified the species within the genus. For the purposes of identification, Linnaeus's Systema Sexualeclassified plants into 2.
The 2. 4th group, Cryptogamia, included all plants with concealed reproductive parts, mosses, liverworts, ferns, algae and fungi. Increasing knowledge of plant anatomy, morphology and life cycles led to the realisation that there were more natural affinities between plants than the artificial sexual system of Linnaeus had indicated. Adanson (1. 76. 3), de Jussieu (1. Candolle (1. 81. 9) all proposed various alternative natural systems of classification that grouped plants using a wider range of shared characters and were widely followed.
The Candollean system reflected his ideas of the progression of morphological complexity and the later classification by Bentham and Hooker, which was influential until the mid- 1. Candolle's approach. Darwin's publication of the Origin of Species in 1. Candollean system to reflect evolutionary relationships as distinct from mere morphological similarity. Botany was greatly stimulated by the appearance of the first . Schleiden was a microscopist and an early plant anatomist who co- founded the cell theory with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow and was among the first to grasp the significance of the cell nucleus that had been described by Robert Brown in 1. In 1. 85. 5, Adolf Fick formulated Fick's laws that enabled the calculation of the rates of molecular diffusion in biological systems.
Botany uses Latin names for identification, here, glauca means blue. Modern botany. No other cells can pass on inherited characters. The work of Katherine Esau (1. Her books Plant Anatomy and Anatomy of Seed Plants have been key plant structural biology texts for more than half a century. The discipline of plant ecology was pioneered in the late 1. Eugenius Warming, who produced the hypothesis that plants form communities, and his mentor and successor Christen C. The concept that the composition of plant communities such as temperate broadleaf forest changes by a process of ecological succession was developed by Henry Chandler Cowles, Arthur Tansley and Frederic Clements.
Clements is credited with the idea of climax vegetation as the most complex vegetation that an environment can support and Tansley introduced the concept of ecosystems to biology. Building on the extensive earlier work of Alphonse de Candolle, Nikolai Vavilov (1.
These developments, coupled with new methods for measuring the size of stomatal apertures, and the rate of photosynthesis have enabled precise description of the rates of gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Innovations in statistical analysis by Ronald Fisher,Frank Yates and others at Rothamsted Experimental Station facilitated rational experimental design and data analysis in botanical research. The discovery and identification of the auxinplant hormones by Kenneth V. Thimann in 1. 94. Frederick Campion Steward pioneered techniques of micropropagation and plant tissue culture controlled by plant hormones. The synthetic auxin 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 2,4- D was one of the first commercial synthetic herbicides.
With the rise of the related molecular- scale biological approaches of molecular biology, genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, the relationship between the plant genome and most aspects of the biochemistry, physiology, morphology and behaviour of plants can be subjected to detailed experimental analysis. The concept originally stated by Gottlieb Haberlandt in 1. These technologies enable the biotechnological use of whole plants or plant cell cultures grown in bioreactors to synthesise pesticides, antibiotics or other pharmaceuticals, as well as the practical application of genetically modified crops designed for traits such as improved yield.
Modern morphology recognises a continuum between the major morphological categories of root, stem (caulome), leaf (phyllome) and trichome. Furthermore, it emphasises structural dynamics. Modern systematics aims to reflect and discover phylogenetic relationships between plants. Modern Molecular phylogenetics largely ignores morphological characters, relying on DNA sequences as data.
Molecular analysis of DNA sequences from most families of flowering plants enabled the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group to publish in 1. The theoretical possibility of a practical method for identification of plant species and commercial varieties by DNA barcoding is the subject of active current research. Scope and importance. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria are the major groups of organisms that carry out photosynthesis, a process that uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars that can be used both as a source of chemical energy and of organic molecules that are used in the structural components of cells. As a by- product of photosynthesis, plants release oxygen into the atmosphere, a gas that is required by nearly all living things to carry out cellular respiration. In addition, they are influential in the global carbon and water cycles and plant roots bind and stabilise soils, preventing soil erosion.
Plants are crucial to the future of human society as they provide food, oxygen, medicine, and products for people, as well as creating and preserving soil. Historically, all living things were classified as either animals or plants and botany covered the study of all organisms not considered animals. Botanists examine both the internal functions and processes within plant organelles, cells, tissues, whole plants, plant populations and plant communities.